1. 'Florida in Exchange for Havana, Cuba: the British Empire vs. the Spanish Empire.'

Synopsis: One huge Spanish mistake in the exchange: The Keys were lost 'unknowingly.' Centuries later Hemingway fell in love with Havana and Key West both.

2. 'The British Cayman Islands of today were once the Spanish isles Las Tortugas.'

Synopsis: Since 1670 Spain ceded the Cayman Islands to Great Britain; however, although the isles have connections to the British, the culture and lifestyle are strongly Americanized.

3. 'Costa Rica and Colombia: tied together by the Caribbean, and the Pacific Ocean.'

Synopsis: Since colonial times Spain built both Puerto Limón and Cartagena for trade and commerce. However, the old walled Cartagena grew to prominence with a cathedral, the Palace of the Inquisition, the main plaza, and a university.

4. 'Panama and the Panama Canal: one of the "Seven Wonders of the Modern World.'

Synopsis: Extending from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean from its opening in 1914 until 1979, the Canal was controlled by the United States; was returned to the civil control of Panama in that year. It was an engineering marvel for its time.

5. 'Manta and Guayaquil: Two Ports, One Major Difference.'

Synopsis: While Manta is an important commercial port city--maker of the famous 'Panama' hat!-- Guayaquil is a wealthy harbor guarding against enemy incursions. In 1829, Peru invaded Ecuador with the intention of annexing Guayaquil, but it was defeated.

6. 'Salaverry is to Trujillo as Callao is to Lima.'

Synopsis: Salaverry is Trujillo's seaport, just as Callao is Lima's, albeit Callao is Peru's main commercial harbor. Both were founded in the 16th century by the conquistadores; however the regions have a long pre-Colombian history.

7. 'Pirates in the Caribbean and on the Pacific Coast'

Synopsis: English and French pirates active in the Caribbean, among them pirate and privateer Sir Francis Drake, were also after the gold and silver taken by the Spanish from the Inca Empire --carried to Spain in their famous Galleons.